Earth is the only planet where lives exist, and the study related to this planet is known as earth science. Scientists are trying to discover more planets like earth so that they know more about the planet earth where we all are living. Earth science only includes the physical characters of the earth like rain, fossil, earthquakes etc. Earth science is also known as planetary science because it consists of the study of the planet, i.e. earth. There are four branches of earth study, i.e. lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Scientists research the earth's interior and people's impact on the environment of earth. The first branch of the earth is lithosphere which means the hard part or the outer layer of the planet earth and our planet earth is made up of many layers. In this scientists study about crust, mantle and core because they are three layers of earth. Their layers are made up of rocks, so this study also includes information related to rocks.
In the branch biosphere, scientists study the area where plants and animals live and die; it is the area where all living organisms live and share some relations and interact with them. On earth, every living organism is dependent on each other whether it is for food or shelter. From the word, it is clear that the hydrosphere branch includes the study related to water. Water on earth is found on the surface of the earth, above the earth and under the earth. The size of the earth's hydrosphere keeps on changing. The pollution in the hydrosphere is increasing day by day as people are polluting rivers, seas and ponds, so the main work of scientists in this branch is to deal with the increasing pollution and give some safety measures to stop it. The last and the fourth most crucial branch of earth science is the atmosphere which deals with the study of gases present in the air. Air is a mixture of gases which includes oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases.
Earth science is totally related to our daily lives for example some scientists study the weather, some study for dangerous storms, and some research about the water which warns the flood and some study earthquakes as they try to predict when earthquake will strike and at what speed so that they remind people of nearby areas and save the lives. The people who study rocks and helps in locating minerals are known as geologists. Earth scientists not only work in their laboratory; they also work in the field to collect samples like rocks and water from researching that and giving their information. Earth science not only deals with earthquake and flood, but it also deals with all type of natural calamity like volcanoes, cyclone etc. Oceanography is the study of oceans on earth.
The atmosphere is made up of 5 layers, i.e. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Around 75% of gases of the atmosphere are located in the troposphere which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. The other gases of the atmosphere include carbon dioxide and water vapour. Carbon dioxide and water vapour help the earth to catch and hold the energy of the sun, and the phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is responsible for the existence of lives on earth as it maintains the temperature of the earth because of which water is available in liquid form on earth. The atmosphere also plays a vital role in protecting organisms from harmful ultraviolet rays coming from the sun. This study is divided into three categories, i.e. observational, experimental and theoretical. Scientists sometimes may work on a computer for the analysis and sometimes go to exciting places to learn about the earth in deep. Scientists first observe the things which are happening and then make a theory related to that and sometimes go to the field to experiment on the same.
NASA is an independent agency of the United States which deals with space, but it has many programs like NASA earth science enterprise (ESE) and mission to planet earth (MTPE) which studies about the planet earth. The purpose of NASA is to develop an understanding of the earth as they explore more about oceans because earth is made up of 70% water so NASA study about oceans with the help of satellites which are launched in the space. With the help of this scientists got to know about oceans that it plays a significant role in maintaining weather on earth. NASA is working on this from more than 20 years. Many satellites are there which monitors the oceans and provide us with accurate data. The main aim of NASA is to explore more and more about the planet earth so that they can protect our planet helps in improving lives here. They also set some goals for the future generation of explorers.
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