THERMODYNAMICS & IMPORTANCE OF STUDY!
Thermodynamics is a branch of physics in which we study the law of transformation of heat into the other form of energy like electrical, mechanical and chemical and it is made up of two words "thermo and dynamics". In which 'thermo' means heat and 'dynamic' related to the motion of particles. Thermodynamics is usually based on two laws. In the first law, every thermodynamic system possesses a state variable called internal energy while the second law tells us how heat energy gets converted into useful work. There are specific variables in thermodynamics such as Pressure (P), Volume (V) and Temperature (T) and any change in these variables is called the thermodynamic process. There are few terms which are defined in thermodynamics which are System, Surrounding of the system, and Boundary of the system, thermodynamic states and thermodynamic state variables.
System comprises of the region of space and any matter whose behaviour is studied, for example gas enclosed in a cylinder. In universe other than the system all things comes in the surrounding of the system.
When there is no transfer or mass through its boundary it comes in a closed system and in an open system, there is transfer of mass. And when the border separates the system called boundary of the system, there is no transfer of mass and heat is called isolated system like a thermo flask.
When a system has a specific value of pressure, volume and temperature, in particular condition it is called the state of the system, and when these variables determine the physical state of a system, it's called the state variables or state functions.
First law of thermodynamic consists of three ideas: the existence of the internal energy as a state variable, the principle of conservation of energy, and definition of heat as energy in transit.
In the first law, there are four processes, i.e. Isochoric process (Volume constant), Isobaric process (Pressure Constant), Isothermal process (Temperature constant) and adiabatic process (Energy constant).
Example of the first law is let we have a nitrogen gas in the container, and the fitting of the container is moveable during the thermodynamic process 200 joules of heat enter the gas and gas does the 300 joules of work in process. So, the change in internal energy is -100 joules; the negative sign shows that the gas does the work.
The second law contains two statements, Lord Kelvin statement and Rudolf Clausius statement.
The example of the second law is the Carnot Cycle. It consists of four processes two isothermals and two adiabatic processes.
The second law of thermodynamic contains four idealise cycles: Carnot cycle, Rankine cycle, Otto cycle and diesel cycle.
There is also a concept of entropy through the second law, if a system undergoes reversible process when it absorbs heat and temperature then increase in state variable it is called entropy. If a system passes through a natural process, it will go in a direction that causes the entropy plus the environment increase, but the natural process moves toward the greater disorder. Thus, there is a relation between entropy and molecular disorder, i.e. a constant heat flow from hot to a cold substance of a system increase disorder because the molecule is initially sorted out in a more heated and cooler region and this order is lost when the system comes to thermal equilibrium. Entropy is also called the measure of the disorder of the system. For example, consider a box containing equal numbers of red and green balls, red balls are arranged on one side, and green balls are arranged on the other side of the box, we shake the box the ball will mix. The states of the ball have change from an initially ordered state to finally disordered state, the entropy increases in this process.
In our daily life thermodynamic is considered as one of the essential parts. Whether we are sitting in an air conditioner room or travelling in any vehicle or watching television etc. We will see the application of thermodynamic everywhere. All the refrigerator and heat pump, blower, compressor fan fulfil the second law of thermodynamics. In thermodynamic we also do renewable energy. Sweating in the crowd room and melting of an ice cube are the applications of thermodynamics. Units like a blower, evaporator, compressor, boiler, nozzles, chimneys, steam turbine and fan are designed on thermodynamic like temperature enthalpy, pressure, entropy etc.
CPU, Tablets, Laptop based on heat transfer law. Thermodynamics is not only used in physics but also it is used in biology (radiography is a technique used by the doctor), economics and energy.
In short, nowadays thermodynamics is very important in our life because it touches every field that we concern. So as a conclusion thermodynamic model is widely used in theoretical and applied problems. Some examples are the creation of strictly formalised methods based on the idea of a thermodynamic tree, construction of the thermodynamic model of an atmospheric aerosol, and description of a sufficiently complete system of kinetic constraints in equilibrium models of Combustion and atmospheric pollution processes.
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